Epigrafska književnost – stećci

Dragana Bogdanović

Abstract

Stećci su u dugom periodu, sve od 11. do 15. stoljeća, predstavljali značajan oblik izražavanja umjetničkog i duhovnog života, oblik u epigrafskoj književnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. Stećci su grupirani u nekropolama. Sreću se osim Bosne i Hercegovine i u Hrvatskoj, Srbiji i Crnoj Gori. Postojale su dvije umjetničke škole za izradu stećaka, jedna u Hercegovini, a druga u centralnoj i istočnoj Bosni. Jednu oličava i predstavlja Hercegovina, a drugu školu predstavlja centralna i istočna Bosna do Ludmera. Južna, jadransko-mediteranska klesarska škola likovno je bogatija i razigranijih motiva. Zastupljena je figuralna plastika Hercegovine. Istočnobosanska škola ima floralne motive. Daroviti umjetnici, klesari i „dijaci“ bili su Grubač i Semorad. Dijak je bila profesija vezana za bansku i kraljevsku kancelariju. Bilo je to zvanje kao neka vrsta profesionalnog pisara. Bili su vezani i za kancelarije feudalnih porodica. Epitafe su potpisivali i članovi porodica. Na stećcima su ustaljene fraze: „A ce лeжи... нa cвoj зeмљи нa плeмeнитoj, a тo писa Радомил дијaк“, „Пише ди[ја]к Семорад“, „A се съче Грубач“. Fraze na stećcima su interesantne za historiju literarnog jezika , historiju pismenosti i historijsku dijalektologiju.

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Epigraphic literature - stećci

Stećci have being presented during a long period from 11th till 15th century, an important way of expressing of artistic and spiritual life, form of epigraphic literature in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Stećci were clustered in barrows. They are being found, except in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. There were two artistic schools for making of stećci, there was one in Herzegovina, the second one was in central and eastern Bosnia. Herzegovina has personified one, the second school has been represented by central and eastern Bosnia to Ludmer. South, Adriatic-Mediterranean stone cutting school was artistic richer and its motifs danced with joy. There was represented figured plastic art of Herzegovina. Eastern-Bosnian school has got floral motifs. Grubač and Semorad were talented artists, stone cutters and ˝dijaci˝. ˝Dijak˝ named the profession connected with ban´s and royal chancellery. It was a profession as a kind of professional scrible. They were connected with chanceleries of feudal families. The epitaphs were undersigned by the members of families. The established phrases were graved on stećci: ˝He lies ... on his ground, generous one, and Radomil ´dijak´ it was writing ˝, ˝Di[ja]k Semorad writes˝, ˝Here, Grubač carves˝. Phrases in stećci are interesting for history of literary language, history of literacy and historical dialectology.

 

Keywords

epigrafska književnost; stećci; oblici; Bosna i Hercegovina; epitafi; nekropole; umjetničke škole; motivi; klesari; epigraphic literature; stećci, shapes; Bosnia and Herzegovina; epitaphs; barrows; artistic (manner) schools; motifs; stonecutters

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